时时彩组六稳赚方法 > 文化散论 >


[转贴]中世纪的宗教裁判所究竟处决了多少人?- 数以千计
常常在一些涉及宗教话题的帖子里看到有人攻击基督教和罗马天主教廷, 宣称基督教如何的残忍和愚昧,
原因之一是在中世纪,宗教裁判所烧死了数百万的异教徒,云云。并宣称这一数据来源于百度。

百度是否真的给出这样的数据我不得而知, 但我从GOOLE上搜索到了这样的文章。现转贴这里。

我在GOOLE的搜索框里输入了这样的查询句子: How many people were actually killed during the Inqusiton

有不少的结果,我拷贝了Answers.com(WikiAnswers)的一篇, 来源如下:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_many_people_died_from_the_Inquisition

整篇文章如下: (我只翻译了开始的两段, 有兴趣的网友可以自己看完)

有多少人死于宗教裁判

全欧洲死于各种宗教裁判所的人数很难确定, 不过受害者是以千计, 而不是以百万
计。假如真是以百万计的话,欧洲的人口就被宗教裁判所消灭光了! 尽管西班牙的宗教
裁判所维持了上百年, 但实际上宗教裁判只主要在法国,西班牙和意大利的小部分地
区实行。

例如,西班牙宗教裁判所,的确是存在于欧洲的各类审讯机构中最严酷和腐败的,在
1560-1700年间, 它共审理了4万9千宗案件,处决的人数在3-5000之间。

更正:西班牙宗教裁判所是政府部门, 不是罗马教皇的组织。将西班牙宗教裁判所的
行为怪罪教皇是不正确的。但西班牙的国王们用多米尼加人(天主教徒)作为审判官, 等等。
因为神职人员(尤其是言及的修道士)远比普通人受教育程度要高。



How many people died from the Inquisition?
In: European History, Catholicism [Edit categories]

The number of people who died in the various inquistions across Europe is

difficult to determine, but the number of victims can be numbered in the

thousands, not the millions as a previous respondent stated. The entire

populations of Europe would have been wiped out if inquisitors had killed in

those numbers! Even though the Spanish Inquisition lasted for hundreds of

years the Inquisition was held primarily in small areas in France, Spain and

Italy.




For example, the Spanish Inquisition, assuredly the most vigorous and corrupt

of the various inquisitorial bodies that existed in Europe, held 49,000

trials between 1560-1700 and executed between 3 and 5,000 people.
I suggest to read Edward Peter''s Inquisition for the most up to date analysis

of the topic, including the myths that have arisen surrounding the

inquisitions.
Correction The Spanish Inquisition was state ministry, not papal

organization. Blaming Popes for deeds of Spanish Inquisition is incorrect.

However kings of Spain used Dominicans (catholic order) as judges etc.

because clergy (especially mentioned monks) were generally far more educated

than ordinal people.
Brief Answer: Talking of ''the inquisition'' probably refers to the whole thing

i.e. ''retake'' of land for christians and murderous rampage against heretics.

It was started by Pope Lucius III when he issued a bull against heretics- and

the violent measures against them. It is strongly thought by those who

thoroughly study the inquisition that the death toll is indeed in the

millions. Which is of course denied by Christian leaders and followers.
After some thought, I''m leaving the last two contributors'' responses here to

give those interested some idea of the flavor of the controversy. Firstly, it

is correct to state that the Spanish Inquisition was a 时时彩组六稳赚方法 state ministry, but

that doesn''t remove it from the category of "inquisition." It was authorized

by the papacy and thereafter used by monarchs on the Iberian peninsula

beginning with Ferdinand and Isabella as the only institution at their

disposal that operated across the boundaries of the twin crowns of Aragon and

Castille. Many inquisitions functioned in 重庆时时彩网页版计划 conjunction with secular

authorities, such as in 15th century Florence. And needless to say the Roman

inquisition functioned under the direct management and control of the Pope,

who WAS the secular (as well as spiritual) authority in the city of Rome and

the Papal States. All of this simply goes toward explaining why it makes no

sense to think of a single inquisition, rather than muliple inquisitions.

Again, if you are truly interested in the subject, read Edward Peters or

Richard Kieckhefer.

As for how many deaths may be attributed to the various inquisitorial bodies,

I''m not certain who the previous contributor refers to when he states that

"those who thoroughly study the inquisition" agree that the death toll 重庆时时彩3期必中计划 was in

the millions, but he or she is quite wrong on multiple levels. I am unaware

of any modern historian who would accept such ridiculous numbers and it has

nothing to do with whether or not they are Christian. Again, for a general

treatment of the various inquisitions, read Edward Peters'' Inquistions, and

for a more specialized treatment turn to Richard Kieckhefer''s Repression of

Heresy in Medieva1 Germany.
Finally, the previous contributor was correct in pointing to the papal bull

of 1184, ab abolendam, which Pope Lucius III did indeed issue the year before

his death, as the beginning of the papal inquisition, but episcopal

inquisitions had existed prior to this, and indeed the first time heretics

were burned was at Orleans in 1022. And again, even with the establishment of

the papal inquisition, various judge legates, which is what individual

inquisitors were, pursued their duties in differing ways and with differing

agendas. In sum, there never was anything one code referred to as THE

inquisition, simply various individual inquisitions.


MORE: According to Henry Kamen''s "The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical

Revision" it is very difficult to determine, because if people fled - which

they usually did - the Inquisition would burn them in effigy, and make no

distinction in their records between whether someone was burned in effigy or

in reality. According to Kamen, at the height of the Inquistion, they

executed a handful of people per year, and the State of Texas executes more

people in a year than the Inquisition did in ten.

Note: There are comments associated with this question. See the discussion

page to add to the conversation.

Improve Answer Discuss the question "How many people died from the

Inquisition?" Click here to register and get updates when this answer is

edited. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter


Read more:

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_many_people_died_from_the_Inquisition#ixzz19yuZ

N5nk