[转贴]中世纪的宗教裁判所究竟处决了多少人？- 数以千计常常在一些涉及宗教话题的帖子里看到有人攻击基督教和罗马天主教廷， 宣称基督教如何的残忍和愚昧，
我在GOOLE的搜索框里输入了这样的查询句子： How many people were actually killed during the Inqusiton
整篇文章如下： （我只翻译了开始的两段， 有兴趣的网友可以自己看完）
全欧洲死于各种宗教裁判所的人数很难确定， 不过受害者是以千计， 而不是以百万
How many people died from the Inquisition?
In: European History, Catholicism [Edit categories]
The number of people who died in the various inquistions across Europe is
difficult to determine, but the number of victims can be numbered in the
thousands, not the millions as a previous respondent stated. The entire
populations of Europe would have been wiped out if inquisitors had killed in
those numbers! Even though the Spanish Inquisition lasted for hundreds of
years the Inquisition was held primarily in small areas in France, Spain and
For example, the Spanish Inquisition, assuredly the most vigorous and corrupt
of the various inquisitorial bodies that existed in Europe, held 49,000
trials between 1560-1700 and executed between 3 and 5,000 people.
I suggest to read Edward Peter''s Inquisition for the most up to date analysis
of the topic, including the myths that have arisen surrounding the
Correction The Spanish Inquisition was state ministry, not papal
organization. Blaming Popes for deeds of Spanish Inquisition is incorrect.
However kings of Spain used Dominicans (catholic order) as judges etc.
because clergy (especially mentioned monks) were generally far more educated
than ordinal people.
Brief Answer: Talking of ''the inquisition'' probably refers to the whole thing
i.e. ''retake'' of land for christians and murderous rampage against heretics.
It was started by Pope Lucius III when he issued a bull against heretics- and
the violent measures against them. It is strongly thought by those who
thoroughly study the inquisition that the death toll is indeed in the
millions. Which is of course denied by Christian leaders and followers.
After some thought, I''m leaving the last two contributors'' responses here to
give those interested some idea of the flavor of the controversy. Firstly, it
is correct to state that the Spanish Inquisition was a 时时彩组六稳赚方法 state ministry, but
that doesn''t remove it from the category of "inquisition." It was authorized
by the papacy and thereafter used by monarchs on the Iberian peninsula
beginning with Ferdinand and Isabella as the only institution at their
disposal that operated across the boundaries of the twin crowns of Aragon and
Castille. Many inquisitions functioned in 重庆时时彩网页版计划 conjunction with secular
authorities, such as in 15th century Florence. And needless to say the Roman
inquisition functioned under the direct management and control of the Pope,
who WAS the secular (as well as spiritual) authority in the city of Rome and
the Papal States. All of this simply goes toward explaining why it makes no
sense to think of a single inquisition, rather than muliple inquisitions.
Again, if you are truly interested in the subject, read Edward Peters or
As for how many deaths may be attributed to the various inquisitorial bodies,
I''m not certain who the previous contributor refers to when he states that
"those who thoroughly study the inquisition" agree that the death toll 重庆时时彩3期必中计划 was in
the millions, but he or she is quite wrong on multiple levels. I am unaware
of any modern historian who would accept such ridiculous numbers and it has
nothing to do with whether or not they are Christian. Again, for a general
treatment of the various inquisitions, read Edward Peters'' Inquistions, and
for a more specialized treatment turn to Richard Kieckhefer''s Repression of
Heresy in Medieva1 Germany.
Finally, the previous contributor was correct in pointing to the papal bull
of 1184, ab abolendam, which Pope Lucius III did indeed issue the year before
his death, as the beginning of the papal inquisition, but episcopal
inquisitions had existed prior to this, and indeed the first time heretics
were burned was at Orleans in 1022. And again, even with the establishment of
the papal inquisition, various judge legates, which is what individual
inquisitors were, pursued their duties in differing ways and with differing
agendas. In sum, there never was anything one code referred to as THE
inquisition, simply various individual inquisitions.
MORE: According to Henry Kamen''s "The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical
Revision" it is very difficult to determine, because if people fled - which
they usually did - the Inquisition would burn them in effigy, and make no
distinction in their records between whether someone was burned in effigy or
in reality. According to Kamen, at the height of the Inquistion, they
executed a handful of people per year, and the State of Texas executes more
people in a year than the Inquisition did in ten.
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